Climate is the average weather condition that prevails over a longer period of time in a given area. For example, average temperature, average precipitation, average sunshine etc.
Climate change is any change in the long-term condition of climate variables such as temperature, precipitation, sunshine, or wind velocity over several decades or longer.
Climate change can be due to natural external forcing (changes in solar emission or changes in the earth’s orbit, natural internal processes of the climate system) or it can be human induced.
The period used for describing a climate is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
Climate change is now one of the biggest problems across the globe as its impacts on human being and the environment are very terrible and prolonged. Most of the countries of the world are directly and indirectly affected by the adverse effects of climate change.
According to WHO, between 2030 and 2050, climate change is expected to cause approximately 250 000 additional deaths per year, from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea and heat stress, the direct damage costs to health (i.e. excluding costs in health-determining sectors such as agriculture and water and sanitation), is estimated to be between USD 2-4 billion/year by 2030, areas with weak health infrastructure – mostly for developing countries will be hard to cope without assistance to prepare and respond.
Changing climate started to effect in Bangladesh more than over a decade. Bangladesh is one of the largest deltas in the world which is highly vulnerable to Natural Disasters because of its Geographical location, low-lying landscape, Population density, Poverty, Illiteracy, Lack of Institutional setup etc. The adverse effects of Climate Change-especially High Temperature, Sea-level Rise, changing precipitation pattern, changing crop calendar, Cyclones and Storm Surges, Salinity Intrusion, Heavy Monsoon Downpours etc. has aggravated the general Economic Development state of the country to an adverse extent.
Climate is changing due to many reasons and can be classified into two categories.
Firstly, natural causes- created by the effects of nature including biotic processes and variations in solar radiation received by Earth plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions etc. Secondly, manmade causes- the causes are made by human being.
As for example, humans are increasingly influencing the climate change by burning fossil fuels like, coal, diesel, petrol, gases; by growing poultry and livestock and by cutting down trees and rain forests which cause greenhouse effect. As a result, the global temperature is growing very high day by day. In addition, many toxic gases like carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, methane, ammonia and so on are emitting on atmosphere and polluting the environment. These gases are trapping the sun’s heat and stopping it from leaking back into space. As a result, the ozone layer is getting damaged and the atmosphere is getting imbalanced.
Bangladesh experienced various type of Natural Disaster almost every year because of the Global Warming as well as Climate change impacts. These are floods, cyclones and storm surges, salinity intrusion, extreme temperature and drought. Climate change adversely impact on agriculture, fisheries, water resources and hydrology, coastal areas, forestry, urban areas etc.
The economy of Bangladesh based on agriculture, two thirds of the people engaged directly and indirectly on agriculture activities. The overall impact of changing climate on Agricultural production in Bangladesh would be wide spread and devastating for the country’s economy.
Beside this, other impacts of Climate Change like Extreme Temperature, Drought, and Salinity Intrusion etc. are also responsible for the declining crop yields in Bangladesh.
Temperature and Rainfall changes as well as crop calendar change have already affected crop production in many parts of the country and the area of arable land has decreased to a great extent. In a high population density country like Bangladesh, the effects of Climate Change on the Surface and Ground water resources will be very adverse and alarming.
Changing in water resources and hydrology will have a significant impact on the country’s economy. People who live in the coastal regions some how affected by Coastal Floods / Tidal Surges, River-bank Erosion, Salinity, Tropical Cyclones etc. Climate change effect on the biodiversity adversely.
Various flora and fauna suffering much and climate change damage their biodiversity. Sundarban also hampering much because of changing climate. Climate change causes acid rain that damage infrastructure as well as building in urban areas most.
The glaciers are melting, sea-level rising since the World is getting warmer, changing pattern of precipitation, changing crop calendar, damaging biodiversity- We should come forward and fight for our common problem climate change to solve.
To protect our country from the adverse impact of climate change some policies should be taken like green community, blue economy, energy efficient system, choose renewable power, let polluters pay, support and donate etc. Rules and regulation should be strict.
Researchers should try to find out more efficient energy source as much as sustainable. It is also important our understanding of emissions from industry which would ultimately improve climate model and find out more efficient industrial system. We should not think climate change is an individual problem of any country or nation. It’s our common problem; we have to face the problem efficiently as “Citizens of the Global Village” from now on. Let’s protect our Lovely Planet in a sustainable way as the Safe Home for our future Generation.
Writer: Tamim Hossain
Student, Department of Environmental Science & Disaster Management
Noakhali Science & Technology University
BDST: 1242 HRS, OCT 17, 2019